Three Types of Metal Fabrication

Pressure Vessel Fabrications

Introduction to the three 3 types of metal fabrication

  • Metal fabrication is the backbone of many industries, from the cars we drive to the buildings we live and work in. At its core, metal fabrication is the process of creating metal structures by cutting, bending, and assembling. It’s a craft that requires precision, expertise, and an understanding of the properties and potentials of various metals. This article delves into the three primary types of metal fabrication, shedding light on their techniques, advantages, and applications. By understanding these processes, businesses, and individuals can make informed decisions about which method is best suited for their specific needs. Whether you’re in the aerospace industry, construction, or simply curious about the world of metalwork, this guide will provide a comprehensive overview of the essential fabrication methods.


  • Cutting is one of the foundational processes in metal fabrication. It involves removing material from a workpiece to achieve a specific shape or design. With advancements in technology, cutting techniques have evolved to offer precision, speed, and versatility.

Common Cutting Techniques:

Laser Cutting:

This method uses a high-powered laser beam to melt and vaporize material, resulting in clean and precise cuts. It’s especially useful for intricate designs and thin metals.

Plasma Cutting:

 By utilizing a plasma torch, this technique cuts through electrically conductive materials by producing a high-temperature, ionized gas known as plasma. It’s known for its speed and ability to cut thick materials.

Water Jet Cutting:

This technique employs a high-pressure stream of water, sometimes mixed with an abrasive substance, to erode a narrow line in the material. It’s ideal for materials that might be sensitive to high temperatures, ensuring no thermal distortion.

Advantages of Cutting:

Precision and Accuracy:

Automated and computer-controlled cutting systems can rapidly produce parts, making them suitable for both one-off projects and mass production.

Versatility in Materials:

 From stainless steel to aluminum, cutting methods can handle a wide range of materials, each with its unique properties.

Speed and Efficiency:

Automated and computer-controlled cutting systems can rapidly produce parts, making them suitable for both one-off projects and mass production.

Disadvantages of Cutting:

Material Waste:

 Traditional cutting methods can lead to significant material wastage, especially if not optimized. This not only increases costs but also has environmental implications.

Tool Wear:

Cutting tools, especially in methods like laser or plasma cutting, can wear out over time. Regular maintenance and replacement are necessary, which can be both time-consuming and costly.

Heat-Affected Zones:

 Techniques like laser and plasma cutting introduce heat into the material. This can result in heat-affected zones where the properties of the metal might change, potentially weakening the material or altering its characteristics.

Surface Roughness:

Some cutting methods can leave behind rough or jagged edges, which might require additional finishing processes. This can increase production time and costs.

Limitations with Thickness:

While advanced cutting methods can handle a range of material thicknesses, there are still limitations. For instance, laser cutting might not be as effective for very thick materials as other methods.

Operational Costs:

High-precision cutting methods, especially those that are automated or computer-controlled, can have high operational costs. This includes energy consumption, especially for methods like laser cutting, and the costs associated with specialized gases in plasma cutting.

Safety Concerns:

Cutting processes, especially when dealing with high temperatures or sharp tools, pose safety risks. Proper safety measures, training, and equipment are essential to prevent accidents.


  • Bending is a vital process in metal fabrication, allowing manufacturers to shape metal sheets, tubes, and rods into desired angles and curves. By applying force to a piece of metal, it’s deformed to create bends, which can range from simple angles to intricate curves, depending on the application.

Common Bending Techniques:

Press Braking:

 This is one of the most traditional methods of bending. A piece of metal is placed between a punch and a die, and force is applied to create a bend. The angle of the bend is determined by the shape of the punch and die.

Tube Bending:

As the name suggests, this technique is specifically for bending tubes. Various methods, such as rotary draw bending or roll bending, are used depending on the desired bend radius and angle.

Roll Bending:

This method uses a set of rolls to bend the metal. The metal passes through these rolls, which apply force and create a curve. It’s especially useful for forming large radii in materials.

Advantages of Bending:

Ability to Create Complex Shapes:

Bending allows for a wide variety of shapes, from simple angles to intricate curves, making it a versatile process in metal fabrication.

Cost-effective for Large-scale Production:

 Once set up, bending machines can produce a large number of parts in a short time, making the process cost-effective for mass production.

Enhanced Strength and Durability:

 Bending can increase the rigidity and strength of metal components, especially when combined with other fabrication processes.

Disadvantages of Bending:

Material Limitations:

Not all metals or alloys are suitable for bending. Some materials might crack or break when subjected to bending forces, especially if they are not adequately prepared or if the bending radius is too tight.


After bending, metals tend to return slightly to their original shape due to their elasticity. This phenomenon, known as springback, can affect the final dimensions and accuracy of the bent piece. It requires careful planning and sometimes additional processes to achieve the desired final shape.

Surface Damage:

Bending can sometimes lead to surface imperfections, such as scratches or marks, especially if the tools or machines used are not properly maintained or if the material is particularly soft or sensitive.

Residual Stresses:

The bending process can introduce residual stresses into the metal, which might affect its structural integrity and performance under certain conditions. If not managed, these stresses can lead to premature failure or deformation over time.

Tooling Costs:

For specific bends or complex shapes, specialized tooling might be required. This can increase the initial investment, especially for custom or one-off projects.

Thickness Constraints:

Bending has limitations when it comes to the thickness of the material. Extremely thick metals might be challenging or even impossible to bend using standard techniques, requiring alternative methods or machinery.

Limitations in Complexity:

While bending can achieve a variety of shapes, there are limits to the complexity and intricacy of designs, especially when compared to methods like molding or casting.


  • Assembling is the culmination of the metal fabrication process, where individual pieces are joined together to form a cohesive structure or product. This phase is crucial, as the strength, functionality, and aesthetics of the final product often hinge on the quality of assembly.

Common Assembling Techniques:


One of the most common methods, welding involves melting the edges of two metal pieces and fusing them together, often with the addition of a filler material. Once cooled, the joint becomes a strong, continuous bond. There are various welding techniques, such as MIG, TIG, and stick welding, each suitable for different applications and metals.


This is a mechanical method where a metal pin or bolt, known as a rivet, is inserted into holes of the pieces to be joined. The rivet is then deformed on both ends to hold the pieces together. Riveting is especially common in situations where welding might not be feasible or where disassembly is anticipated.


Bolting is another mechanical method of joining metal pieces. It involves using threaded fasteners, like bolts and nuts, to hold components together. This method is often chosen for its ease of assembly and disassembly.

Advantages of Assembling:

Flexibility in Design and Construction:

Assembling techniques allow for a wide range of design possibilities, accommodating both simple and complex structures.

Durability and Longevity:

Properly assembled structures can withstand significant stresses and strains, ensuring a long lifespan for the final product.

Efficiency in Large-scale Manufacturing:

Automated and semi-automated assembly lines can produce large quantities of products in a short time, ensuring consistent quality and rapid production.

Disadvantages of Assembling:

Complexity and Skill Requirement:

Proper assembly often demands a high level of expertise. Inaccurate assembly can lead to structural weaknesses, malfunctioning parts, or even safety hazards. Thus, skilled labor is a must, which can increase the cost of production.


Depending on the complexity of the product and the assembly method used, the process can be time-intensive. Especially in manual assembly scenarios, aligning, joining, and ensuring the integrity of connections can be a lengthy process.

Cost Implications:

Assembling can sometimes introduce additional costs. This includes the expenses related to fasteners like bolts, rivets, or welding consumables. Additionally, specialized equipment or machinery might be needed, further driving up costs.

Potential for Errors:

 Human error, misalignment, or the use of incorrect or subpar materials can lead to assembly flaws. Such errors can compromise the functionality and safety of the final product.

Maintenance and Repair Challenges:

Assembled structures, especially those that are welded or riveted, can be challenging to disassemble for maintenance or repair. This can lead to longer downtimes or the need for more complex repair techniques.

Limitations in Design Flexibility:

 Some assembly methods might restrict design possibilities. For instance, certain welding techniques might not be suitable for thin metals, or bolting might not be feasible for very small components.

Thermal Distortions:

Techniques like welding introduce heat into the metals being joined. This can lead to thermal distortions or warping, affecting the final product’s shape and structural integrity.

Applications of Metal Fabrication:

  • Metal fabrication, with its diverse techniques and processes, serves as the foundation for countless products and structures that we encounter daily. Its versatility and adaptability have made it indispensable across various industries. Here’s a closer look at some of the primary applications:


The aerospace industry relies heavily on metal fabrication for creating parts for aircraft, satellites, and space vehicles. Precision is paramount, as even the slightest flaw can have significant consequences. Components like wings, fuselage sections, and engine parts are crafted using specialized fabrication techniques to ensure they withstand extreme conditions.


 From the body panels of cars to the intricate components of engines, metal fabrication plays a pivotal role in the automotive industry. Techniques like stamping, bending, and welding are employed to produce vehicles that are both aesthetically pleasing and mechanically sound.


The skylines of our cities are a testament to the importance of metal fabrication in construction. Steel beams, girders, and reinforcing bars are fabricated to provide the skeletal framework for buildings, bridges, and other structures. Their strength and durability make them ideal for supporting large loads and withstanding natural elements.

Consumer Electronics:

At a glance, it might seem that metal fabrication has a limited role in electronics. However, many components, from the casings of smartphones to the frames of televisions, are products of metal fabrication. These components not only provide structural support but also play a role in aesthetics and functionality.

Medical Devices:

 Precision and reliability are crucial in the medical field. Metal fabrication techniques are employed to produce surgical instruments, implants, and equipment. The ability to work with a variety of metals, including those that are biocompatible, makes fabrication essential in this industry.

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Red River specializes in the design and manufacturing of pressure vessels. We also fabricate related items such as prefabricated spools and skid packages.

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FAQ: Three Types of Metal Fabrication

What are the three main types of metal fabrication?

The three main types of metal fabrication are cutting, bending, and assembling. Cutting involves dividing metal materials into smaller sections or shapes. Bending changes the shape of the metal without removing material. Assembling refers to joining metal pieces together through welding, bolting, or using adhesives to create a final product.

How does the cutting process in metal fabrication work, and what techniques are used?

The cutting process in metal fabrication works by removing parts of metal sheets or bars to achieve the desired size or shape. Common techniques include laser cutting, which uses a high-powered laser beam; plasma cutting, which employs ionized gas; waterjet cutting, utilizing high-pressure water; and traditional mechanical cutting tools like shears.

What are the benefits and limitations of laser cutting in metal fabrication?

Benefits of laser cutting include high precision, speed, and the ability to cut complex shapes with clean edges. It’s also versatile, capable of cutting various materials and thicknesses. However, limitations include higher operational costs compared to some traditional methods and potential limitations on cutting thickness, especially for very thick materials.

Can all metals be bent in the fabrication process, and what methods are used?

Most metals can be bent in the fabrication process, but the method and ease of bending depend on the metal’s properties, such as its ductility and thickness. Common bending methods include press brake bending, which uses a press machine to bend metal; roll bending, for creating curved sections; and tube bending, specifically for pipes and tubing.

What is the significance of assembling in metal fabrication, and what are common techniques?

Assembling is significant in metal fabrication as it brings together individual pieces to form complex structures or finished products. Common techniques include welding, which melts and fuses parts together; bolting, which uses fasteners for mechanical joins; and using adhesives for bonding surfaces without altering the metal’s properties.


In the realm of industrial solutions, Red River emerges as a pioneer, offering a diverse range of custom-engineered products and facilities. Among our specialties is the design and production of Custom/OEM Pressure Vessels, meticulously crafted to meet individual client requirements, ensuring performance under various pressure conditions. Our expertise extends to the domain of prefabrication, where Red River leads with distinction.

The company excels in creating prefabricated facilities, modules, and packages, reinforcing its stance as a forerunner in innovation and quality. This proficiency is further mirrored in their Modular Skids offering, where they provide an array of Modular Fabricated Skid Packages and Packaged equipment. Each piece is tailored to client specifications, underlining their commitment to delivering precision and excellence in every project they undertake.

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